Quantum computing is a field of computing that utilizes quantum-mechanical phenomena to perform operations on data. It has the potential to solve problems that are currently intractable with classical computers, and has promising applications in fields such as cryptography, drug discovery, and optimization.
One of the fundamental concepts in quantum mechanics is the wave-particle duality, which describes the behavior of particles as both waves and particles. The concept of superposition, which was introduced by Niels Bohr in 1927, is another important concept in quantum mechanics that describes the ability of a system to exist in multiple states simultaneously. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle is a fundamental principle in quantum mechanics that sets a limit on the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle can be known. Niels Bohr, a Danish physicist, is considered a pioneer in the field of physics and introduced the concept of superposition in 1927.
Entanglement is a phenomenon in quantum mechanics where two particles become correlated in such a way that the state of one particle is dependent on the state of the other, even if they are separated by a large distance. It has potential applications in quantum computing and cryptography, but also presents challenges in maintaining coherence over long distances.