Databases are organized collections of data, structured in a way that allows for efficient storage, retrieval, and manipulation of information. Databases are commonly used in various applications, such as websites, business systems, and scientific research, to store and manage large volumes of data. They can be relational, NoSQL, or object-oriented, and are often accessed and managed using specialized software known as database management systems (DBMS). Databases play a crucial role in modern information systems, enabling the storage and retrieval of structured data for a wide range of purposes.
The CAP theorem, also known as Brewer's theorem, is a fundamental principle in distributed systems that states that it is impossible for a distributed data system to simultaneously provide more than two out of the following three guarantees: Consistency, Availability, and Partition tolerance. This theorem has significant implications for the design and operation of distributed databases and other distributed systems, as it forces architects and engineers to carefully consider the trade-offs between consistency, availability, and partition tolerance in their designs.